Dictionarybased compression algorithms include a parsing strategy to transform the input text into a sequence of dictionary phrases. Given a text, such process usually is not unique and, for compression purpose, it makes sense to find one of the possible parsing that minimize the final compression ratio. This is the parsing problem. An optimal parsing is a parsing strategy or a parsing algorithm that solve the parsing problem taking account of all the constraints of a compression algorithm or of a class of homogeneous compression algorithms. Compression algorithm constrains are, for instance, the dictionary itself, i.e. the dynamic set of available phrases, and how much a phrase weights on the compressed text, i.e. the number of bits of which the codeword representing such phrase is composed, also denoted as the encoding cost of a dictionary pointer. In more than 30th years of history of dictionary based text compression, while plenty of algorithms, variants and extensions appeared and while dictionary approach to text compression became one of the most appreciated and utilized in almost all the storage and communication processes, only few optimal parsing algorithms were presented. Many compression algorithms still leaks optimality of their parsing or, at least, proof of optimality. This happens because there is not a general model of the parsing problem that includes all the dictionary based algorithms and because the existing optimal parsing algorithms work under too restrictive hypothesis. This work focus on the parsing problem and presents both a general model for dictionary based text compression called DictionarySymbolwise Text Compression theory and a general parsing algorithm that is proved to be optimal under some realistic hypothesis. This algorithm is called iii DictionarySymbolwise Flexible Parsing and it covers almost all of the known cases of dictionary based text compression algorithms together with the large class of their variants where the text is decomposed in a sequence of symbols and dictionary phrases. In this work we further consider the case of a free mixture of a dictionary compressor and a symbolwise compressor. Our DictionarySymbolwise Flexible Parsing covers also this case. We have indeed an optimal parsing algorithm in the case of dictionarysymbolwise compression where the dictionary is prefix closed and the cost of encoding dictionary pointer is variable. The symbolwise compressor is any classical one that works in linear time, as many common variablelength encoders do. Our algorithm works under the assumption that a special graph that will be described in the following, is well defined. Even if this condition is not satisfied, it is possible to use the same method to obtain almost optimal parses. In detail, when the dictionary is LZ78like, we show how to implement our algorithm in linear time. When the dictionary is LZ77like our algorithm can be implemented in time O(n log n). Both have O(n) space complexity. Even if the main aim of this work is of theoretical nature, some experimental results will be introduced to underline some practical effects of the parsing optimality in terms of compression performance and to show how to improve the compression ratio by building extensions Dictionary Symbolwise of known algorithms. Finally, some more detailed experiments are hosted in a devoted appendix.
Optimal Parsing for Dictionary Text Compression
LANGIU, Alessio
2012
Abstract
Dictionarybased compression algorithms include a parsing strategy to transform the input text into a sequence of dictionary phrases. Given a text, such process usually is not unique and, for compression purpose, it makes sense to find one of the possible parsing that minimize the final compression ratio. This is the parsing problem. An optimal parsing is a parsing strategy or a parsing algorithm that solve the parsing problem taking account of all the constraints of a compression algorithm or of a class of homogeneous compression algorithms. Compression algorithm constrains are, for instance, the dictionary itself, i.e. the dynamic set of available phrases, and how much a phrase weights on the compressed text, i.e. the number of bits of which the codeword representing such phrase is composed, also denoted as the encoding cost of a dictionary pointer. In more than 30th years of history of dictionary based text compression, while plenty of algorithms, variants and extensions appeared and while dictionary approach to text compression became one of the most appreciated and utilized in almost all the storage and communication processes, only few optimal parsing algorithms were presented. Many compression algorithms still leaks optimality of their parsing or, at least, proof of optimality. This happens because there is not a general model of the parsing problem that includes all the dictionary based algorithms and because the existing optimal parsing algorithms work under too restrictive hypothesis. This work focus on the parsing problem and presents both a general model for dictionary based text compression called DictionarySymbolwise Text Compression theory and a general parsing algorithm that is proved to be optimal under some realistic hypothesis. This algorithm is called iii DictionarySymbolwise Flexible Parsing and it covers almost all of the known cases of dictionary based text compression algorithms together with the large class of their variants where the text is decomposed in a sequence of symbols and dictionary phrases. In this work we further consider the case of a free mixture of a dictionary compressor and a symbolwise compressor. Our DictionarySymbolwise Flexible Parsing covers also this case. We have indeed an optimal parsing algorithm in the case of dictionarysymbolwise compression where the dictionary is prefix closed and the cost of encoding dictionary pointer is variable. The symbolwise compressor is any classical one that works in linear time, as many common variablelength encoders do. Our algorithm works under the assumption that a special graph that will be described in the following, is well defined. Even if this condition is not satisfied, it is possible to use the same method to obtain almost optimal parses. In detail, when the dictionary is LZ78like, we show how to implement our algorithm in linear time. When the dictionary is LZ77like our algorithm can be implemented in time O(n log n). Both have O(n) space complexity. Even if the main aim of this work is of theoretical nature, some experimental results will be introduced to underline some practical effects of the parsing optimality in terms of compression performance and to show how to improve the compression ratio by building extensions Dictionary Symbolwise of known algorithms. Finally, some more detailed experiments are hosted in a devoted appendix.File  Dimensione  Formato  

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https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.14242/83805
URN:NBN:IT:UNIPA83805